Developer notes

  • A button is a control that executes an action or navigates within the app
  • Even if the control visibly looks like a link, code as a button to cue the screen reader the action will keep them within the app
  • You should use a native control when at all possible vs a custom element, as it will automatically and correctly announce the role without additional development effort

Name

  • Name describes the purpose of the control
  • iOS Tips
    • Set a label in Interface Builder in the Identity Inspector
    • Group visible text label and the control in the same view container: accessibilityFrameInContainerSpace
    • setTitle( ) method
    • If no visible label, use accessibilityLabel on control
    • Hint is used sparingly and if the results of interacting with it are not obvious from the control’s label
    • Match visible label
    • To hide labels from VoiceOver announcements, uncheck the Accessibility Enabled checkbox in the Identity Inspector
    • If hiding visible label from screen reader, use accessibilityLabel on control
  • Android Tips
    • android:text XML attribute
    • Optional: use contentDescription for a more descriptive name, depending on type of view and for elements (icons) without a visible label
    • contentDescription overrides android:text
    • Use labelFor attribute to associate the visible label with the control

Role

  • iOS
    • Standard UIButton
  • Android
    • Standard button or ImageButton

Groupings

  • Group visible label with button (if applicable)
  • iOS
    • accessibilityFrame
    • accessibilityFrameInContainerSpace
    • GroupView
    • Only the container class is an accessible element
  • Android
    • ViewGroup
    • Set the container object’s android:screenReaderFocusable attribute to true, and each inner object’s android:focusable attribute to false. In doing so, accessibility services can present the inner elements’ contentDescription or names, one after the other, in a single announcement.

State

  • iOS
    • Active: isEnabled property
    • Disabled: UIAccessibilityTraitNotEnabled
    • Announcement: dimmed
  • Android
    • Active: android:enabled=true
    • Disabled” android:enabled=false
    • Announcement: disabled

Focus

  • Only manage focus when needed. Primarily, let the device manage default focus
  • Consider how focus should be managed between child elements and their parent views

  • iOS
    • accessibilityElementIsFocused
    • isAccessibilityElement makes the element visible or not to the Accessibility API
    • accessibilityElementsHidden indicates that the children elements of the target element are visible or not to the Accessibility API
    • accessibilityViewIsModal contains the screen reader focus inside the Modal
    • To move screen reader focus to newly revealed content: UIAccessibilityLayoutChangedNotification
    • To NOT move focus, but dynamically announce new content: UIAccessibilityAnnouncementNotification
  • Android
    • importantForAccessibility makes the element visible to the Accessibility API
    • android:focusable
    • android=clickable
    • Implement an onClick( ) event handler for keyboard, as well as onTouch( )
    • nextFocusDown
    • nextFocusUp
    • nextFocusRight
    • nextFocusLeft
    • accessibilityTraversalBefore (or after)
    • To move screen reader focus to newly revealed content: Type_View_Focused
    • To NOT move focus, but dynamically announce new content: accessibilityLiveRegion(set to polite or assertive)
    • To hide controls: Important_For_Accessibility_false